2) Transverse Waves
Vibrating Waves on a string.
3) Velocity of Sound in
a Gas/Resonant Tubes
Measure speed of sound; provides a good model for instruments based on resonant air columns.
4) Speed of Sound:
Re-enactment of the famous experiment of Galileo's attempt to measure the speed of light. Yields crude measurement, but has historical significance, and teaches error analysis and background subtraction. Note, this must be done outdoors.
5) Simple musical instruments:
Using musical tuners, determine the frequency of the overtone series for a variety of simple instruments including different lengths of copper tube, a tubular reed recorder, and any other instrument the students care to try. Discuss harmonic, odd-harmonic series. Closed and open organ pipes.
6) Computer based lab:
1) Fourier Transforms:
Exercises using Mathematica (and other software if available) to experiment with Fourier Transforms. Generate and play sounds from a harmonic and odd-harmonic instrument.
2) Various exercises using the Experimental Acoustics CD produced by the American Acoustical Society.
3) Equal vs. Just Temperament. I have some sound samples comparing the two. Can also compute frequencies and plot each on log plot.
7) Simple Harmonic Motion/Simple
Introduction to cyclic motion, and basic wave phenomena.
Note: For the following, there is only 1 equipment setup available, so the students must work in groups, and rotate each week.
2) Diffraction and Interference,
Use a wave-table to understand basic principles.
3) Diffraction and Interference,
We have a set of speakers separated by 2m which can be used to measure interference of sound waves. Can vary frequency, and measure separation of nodes.
4) Resonant Flame tube:
Generate standing waves in a flame tube. Deterine harmonics, and measure wavelength.
5) Oscilloscope experiments:
1) Lissajous Figures using 2 function generators
2) Lissajous Figures using mirros and laser
3) Fourier synthesizer: build and hear complex waveforms
6) Standing wave patters
Use a mechanical wave driver to excite Chladni plates. Use square plates, and also shaped plates (i.e., violin shaped).
In addition to the material covered here, there is additional material covering the following topics in the UNT lab manual.
Loudness, Frequency, and Human Hearing
The Human Voice
Synthesizers, Computers, and MIDI