The Seven Devices
- Bandwagon: "Has as its theme 'everybody - at least all of us - is doing it!'
- Card Stacking: "Involves the selection and use of facts or falsehoods,
illustrations or distractions, and logical or illogical statements to give
the best or the worst possible case for an idea, program, person, or product."
- Facts or falsehoods
- Illustrations or distractions
- Logical or illogical statements
- Glittering Generalities: "Associating something with a 'virtue word'
and creating acceptance and approval without examination of the evidence."
- Name-Calling: "Giving an idea a bad label and therefore rejecting
and condemning it without examining the evidence."
- Plain Folks: "The method by which a speaker attempts to convince the
audience that he or she and his or her ideas are good because they are
'of the people,' the 'plain folks.'"
- Testimonial: "Consists in having some respected or hated person
say that a given idea or program or product is good or bad."
- Transfer: "Carries the respect and authority of something respected
to something else to make the latter accepted. Also works with something
that is disrespected to make the latter rejected."