Physics 4321 / 7305 Syllabus - Spring 2023

Fourier series: vector dot-product analogy; orthogonality and closure; expansions (even, odd, neither); Fourier transforms.

Reading - Boaz: chapter 3 section 10, and chapter 7; Arfken and Weber: chapter 4 section 10, and chapter 14.
   Relationships between various basic mathematical structures by Max Tegmark,
   Vector Space
   Hilbert Space
   Peter Olver's notes
   Dirichlet conditions for a Fourier Series to converge to a function
   Convergence of Fourier series
   Convergence of Fourier series
   Divergence of Fourier series
   Weierstrass function - made of cosines, differentiable nowhere
   Gibbs phenomenon
   Image Resolution
   Homer's orbit - Mathologer, complex Fourier series, epicycles
   But what is a Fourier series? From heat flow to circle drawings | DE4 - 3Blue1Brown series  S4 . E4
   Aleph number
   Georg Cantor's diagonalization
   How many infinities are there?
   How To Count Past Infinity - Vsauce
   A Hierarchy of Infinities | Infinite Series | PBS Digital Studios
   How Big are All Infinities Combined? (Cantor's Paradox) | Infinite Series | PBS Digital Studios
   Defining Infinity | Infinite Series | PBS Digital Studios
   Continuum hypothesis

Jan 17 T Lecture notes

Jan 19 R Lecture notes

Jan 24 T Lecture notes

Jan 26 R Lecture notes
        Whiteboard photos: 1, 2, 3, 4.

Jan 31 T Lecture notes
         Square wave Mathematica example notebook, PDF format;
         Triangle wave Mathematica example notebook, PDF format.

Feb 02 R Lecture notes

Generalized Functions / Distributions: delta function, theta step Heavyside
                function, and their derivatives and Laplace transforms;
                applications to electric charge distributions.

Reading - Boaz: chapter 8 section 11; Arfken and Weber: chapter 1 section 15.
   Generalized function a.k.a. Distribution
   Dirac delta function from Wikipedia
   Dirac delta function from Wolfram MathWorld

Feb 07 T Lecture notes

Feb 09 R Lecture notes

Ordinary Differential Equations: order, linearity, homogeneity; 
                examples simple harmonic oscillator, damped SHO,
                damped driven SHO, resonance, Green functions.

Reading - Boaz: Chapter 8; Arfken and Weber: chapter 9.

Feb 14 T Lecture notes

Feb 16 R Lecture notes

Feb 21 T  Lecture notes

   Wronskian - used to check for linear independence of solutions

Feb 23 R 

Feb 28 T Lecture notes, Zoom video, Whiteboard video;

   Green functions, Green function for heat equation; Green function example problem; Mathematica notebook.

Mar 02 R 

Mar 07 T Numerical Approximations to Solutions of Differential Equations

   video for Numerical Approximations to Solutions of Differential Equations
   When I was your age, we programmed in BASIC.  And we liked it.  Not really. 
   Mathematica notebook for the quantum harmonic oscillator, PDF version
   First-order (forward) Euler method for solving differential equations
   Runge-Kutta method

Mar 09 R Midterm exam - Open book, open notes, open Mathematica, closed internet; online, during class time.

   Green function example problem
   Nonlinear Simple Pendulum

Spring Break 13-19 March

Mar 21 T Monte Carlo Methods, video
         See also Introduction to Monte Carlo methods by Stefan Weinzierl; Buffon's Needle

Coordinate Systems; Scale functions; 
Differential operators: Divergence, Gradient, Curl, Laplacian.

Reading - Boaz: Chapter 6; Arfken and Weber: chapters 1 and 2.

Mar 23 R Lecture notes

Mar 28 T Lecture notes, Lecture notes

Mar 30 R Lecture notes, Lecture notes

Apr 04 T Divergence Theorem, Stokes' Theorem; Lecture notes

   Why π is in the normal distribution - by 3Blue1Brown
   Divergence theorem
   Stokes' theorem
   Gaussian integrals
   Fundamental theorem of calculus

Partial Differential Equations: Separation of variables, Cartesian
                coordinates in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions, Cylindrical
                Polar coordinates, Spherical Polar coordinates,
                example Laplace's Equation.

Reading - Boaz: Chapter 13; Arfken and Weber: chapter 9.
   Separation of variables
   Lebesgue integration, Lebesgue measure
   Laplace's equation is separable in these coordinate systems from Mathworld
   An example where separation of variables fails

Apr 06 R Lecture notes, Lecture notes

   See also my notes from PHYS 7311/7312 graduate Electricity and Magnetism: Separation of variables 1/8, 2/8, 3/8, 4/8, 5/8, 6/8, 7/8, 8/8.

    Solutions to the two-dimensional wave equation: Particle in a two-dimensional rectangular box, Particle in a two-dimensional circular box.
    Vibrational Modes of a Circular Membrane
    Bessel function (first kind) Jn (complete, like sin and cos but for cylindrical coord's),
    Weber function, Neumann function, Bessel (second kind) Yn (infinite at s=0),
    modified Bessel (first kind) In (exponential growth for cylindrical coord's),
    modified Bessel (second kind) Kn (exponential decay for cylindrical coord's),
    Legendre Polynomials - Pl(cos θ) (complete in polar angle for spherical coord's)
    Spherical harmonics - Ylm(θ, φ) (complete in polar and azimuthal angles for spherical coord's)
    Spherical Bessel (first kind) jn (complete in radius r for spherical coord's)

Apr 11 T Lecture notes

Apr 13 R Intro to Chaos - YouTube, Veritasium; 
         Group theory, abstraction, and the 196,883-dimensional monster - YouTube, 3Blue1Brown;

Complex Analysis: Complex numbers, Roots of Unity, Cauchy-Riemann
                  equations, analyticity, contour integrals, residues,
                  Laurent expansion, conformal mapping.

Reading - Boaz: chapters 2 and 14; Arfken and Weber: chapters 6 and 7.
   Complex number
   Quadratic equation, see also Discriminant in the link
   Cubic Equation - solution requires complex numbers even if all roots are real
   Fundamental theorem of algebra
   Quartic equation
   Abel-Ruffini theorem unsolvability of the quintic equation in radicals
   Évariste Galois
   Quantum Mechanics requires complex numbers
   Venn (Euler) diagram for number sets
   Euler diagram vs. Venn diagram
   Relationships between various basic mathematical structures by Max Tegmark,
   A Gentle Introduction to Abstract Algebra by B.A. Sethuraman
   Complex number
   Analytic complex (holomorphic) function
   Division algebra
   Pauli matrices
   The Octonions by John C. Baez
   Cauchy's integral theorem
   Holomorphic function
   Analyticity of holomorphic functions
   Real versus complex analytic functions
   Do Complex Numbers Exist? - Sabine Hossenfelder - YouTube 
   Zeros and Poles of complex functions
   Cauchy-Riemann equations in polar form

Apr 18 T Lecture notes

   Conformal Mapping in electrostatics - my grad E&M notes from PHYS 7311
   Complex Analysis and Conformal Mapping notes from Peter Olver
   Conformal (angle-preserving) mapping from Wolfram World
   Morph Me funhouse mirror distortion effect
   Conformal Mapping | Mobius Transformation | Complex Analysis #20 from YouTube
Apr 20 R Lecture notes

Apr 25 T 

   Curved Space - Feynman Lectures
   Escher's Angels and Devils moving in the Riemann-Poincaré disc - hyperbolic plane
   Gaussian Curvature
   Mercedes Gaussian Curvature

Apr 27 R 

   Riemann curvature tensor
   List of formulas in Riemannian geometry

May 06 Saturday Final Exam 11:30 AM - 2:30 PM online. 

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